Data Plural Or Singular Scientific Writing

Today, data is used in English both as a plural noun meaning "facts or pieces of information" (These data are described more fully elsewhere) and as a singular mass noun meaning "information": Not much data is available on flood control in Brazil. Let's says I have a taxonomy called Types. Tag: Data singular or plural “Data” Dilemma Since I joined the Master’s Programme in Health Informatics, many words and expressions have been added to my personal vocab. ” This noun is from the second declension in Latin. Example: Person becomes people while activity becomes activities and data remains data, so it’s a bit confusing for a few users. Times and Storyboard editor Kari Howard at the helm. For the names of certain types of animals, the singular is used to denote both one and more than one individual. But the verb doesn't need to agree with what comes after it (in this case, what grammarians call a "subject complement"). Latin gives us many other plurals. ” Do not use an apostrophe plus an “s,” an italic “s,” or a capital “S. Singular and plural nouns Singular and Plural Noun with Verbs grade-1. This means that all nouns of this form that have a singular form ending with -um have a plural form that ends in -a. A: This is a major misconception. And we’re not talking about the “general lexicon”, we’re talking about science. People, especially in Data Science, usually seem to talk about 'a single data point' and say that 'the data is hard to interpret. I use the singular verb myself!" BizWritingTip response: "Data" is the plural of the Latin word "datum," meaning "given. Never use the article "a" before "news". ' See this discussion for example. This might also be a good thing to factor out. The use of correct singular and plural word forms means that the grammatical structure of sentences will be correct. This is a decidedly practical post. In English, however, the word is uncountable, i. Is the Word "Data" Singular or Plural? many of today’s students brought up with text messages and Twitter don’t write well. The singular form of data is datum, meaning one piece of information, but it's not used in conversational English. Is there a way to force is_singular() to be true outside of a template, or possibly load some sort of empty template with the needed variables?. Not Wells, or Green, or Lindley Murray decided it, but the sabers of Sheridan, the muskets of Sherman, the artillery of Grant. For unit values more than 1 or less than -1 the plural of the unit is used and a singular unit is used for values between 1 and -1. Understand when to use es or just s as in girls and classes. Figure out which audience you want and pick one. Sign up to receive product updates, industry news, and exclusive discounts! We often send exclusive discounts to our registered members, so be sure to sign up and save!. For example when talking about saving and loans, different companies have different interest rates at any one time, so when talking about them generally, it should be plural rates. SAMPLE LESSON FOR NOUNS SINGULAR, PLURAL & COLLECTIVE NOUNS Quick Explanation: Nouns A noun is the part of speech that names a person, place, thing, or an idea. ” None of the apple was eaten. Using some of those words on the list as examples, the following is my interpretation of what they mean when paired with "одни": одни очки = one (pair of) glasses. Adjectives preceded by the and used as plural nouns take a plural verb: The rich get richer. plurals Writing enter SC Campus Center 6 Lombard St Room 7 www. Here you’ll find all the rules (and non-rules) for making nouns plural. Definition of data noun in Oxford Advanced American Dictionary. Concerning singular versus plural table names, the subject seems to be controversial, but it shouldn't be. Make sure all verbs are correct for all subjects (subject-verb agreement). This kind of thing used. I read several different scientific journals, and I am stymied by the different ways that the word, data, is used. Don't let the a in a lot fool you. Johnson, Journal of Business Communication. The conversion between these two is quite easy. Term / Plural / Singular Books -> Book Movies -> Movie. The verb needs to agree with the subject, sales. The more authoritative maps I've seen have legend entries in singular. Singular and plural words indicating ownership For singular nouns , indefinite pronouns (e. ' Would use criterion or criteria with a singular verb? Learn more. What Richard's getting at here is that this sentence seems to mix up a singular word ('public') with plurals ('their' and 'lives') - a grammatical no-no. Now, languages borrow words and do whatever they want with them, so this historical fact about data has no relevance in judging what is "correct" in English. Join Our Mailing List. Nouns Here is a list of all of the skills that cover nouns! These skills are organized by grade, and you can move your mouse over any skill name to preview the skill. 'Data' can be treated as a plural, or (particularly in computing) as a singular. Pietsch When citing a common name of a species, the Latinized scientific name must follow parenthetically the first time it appears, but should thereafter not be repeated. Grouping nouns grade-2. Singular or plural form is unlikely to matter, but listing phrases instead of breaking the keywords down to strict terms is unlikely to be useful to anyone at the publishing companies or managing your institutional repository that is converting the terms to a controlled vocabulary. Concerning singular versus plural table names, the subject seems to be controversial, but it shouldn't be. ) N ote: *The word "news" is a problem for most people learning English. “This data is confusing”). Thus, high school graduates should be able to “[e]valuate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or. incidence data synonyms, incidence data pronunciation, incidence data translation, English dictionary definition of incidence data. Most scholarly authors realise that each abbreviation must be carefully defined for readers when it is first introduced,. Are there other singular or plural forms that cause you trouble in your scientific writing? Write to [email protected], and we will work with you to find the answer. Although today the plural data is widely used as a singular noun, you should keep the distinction, particularly in scientific writing. However, it can also be written as a plural word when it has a plural sense of "two or more sets" and accordingly, a plural verb will be used. Adjectives preceded by the and used as plural nouns take a plural verb: The rich get richer. However, datum is the singular form of this noun and needs a singular verb (e. 1 day ago · Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. It then refers the reader back to a section that includes a list of words that are found in plural form only. Datum is latin for 'a given', and data is the plural, meaning 'the givens. The Styrian government is the majority shareholder of FH JOANNEUM. To change a noun from singular to plural, we usually add either -s or -es. The date you write at the top of a letter comes from the same root as data,. Therefore, when referring to the collective results, be sure to use the plural form:. Definition: Singular means only one. This arises from treating the neuter plural as a feminine singular, with the following reasoning: data is singular. Normally, you end it with s. These reflect the Latin forms. Datum is a noun, and in Latin, the term datum means “something given. Some nouns have a fixed plural form and take a plural verb. Also the BNC has 491 entries for "data are" and 465 for "data is" (and in the vast majority of their examples "data" is the subject of the verb). However, datum is the singular form of this noun and needs a singular verb (e. However, datum - singular, data - plural. The exception to this rule appears in the case of the first person and second person pronouns I and you. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. This kind of thing used. (Convenience). APA Style Tips and Grammatical Hints This guide to writing in APA style (American Psychological Association, 1994) contains rules that are generally more advanced (although no more difficult to apply) than those found in other web-based introductions to APA style. plurals Writing enter SC Campus Center 6 Lombard St Room 7 www. He correctly pointed out that the plural pronoun they does not agree with its antecedent, the singular noun committee. Nouns: Singular vs. data were collected and classified. Historically and in specialized scientific fields, it is treated as a plural in English e. The use of singular and plural forms is linked to: 1. " The APA is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with over 118,000 members. Times and Storyboard editor Kari Howard at the helm. In computing and associated areas, data is normally considered singular. Using a unit symbol which is never used in the plural form removes this ambiguity. It is a noun that shows ownership. Are there any rules whether index entries should be listed in singular or plural?. I know it's a Latin word. If you had read my piece you would have seen that I do admit this specific use of data as a singular non-count noun. Ordinarily, it suggests you treat the name as singular unless you wish to emphasize the individuals who make up the organization. Possessive Nouns Worksheets. In Latin, data is the plural of datum and, historically and in specialized scientific fields, it is also treated as a plural in English, taking a plural verb, as in the data were collected and classified. If at any one time there were several rates, then use the plural. “[W]hether you write data are or data is,” observes Garner, “you’re likely to make some readers raise their eyebrows. Ten kilometres is too far to walk. The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs. (data, confuse—plural. Be sure that you use the plural forms of any pronouns or verbs you use with "data. Once instantiated, the name reflects its instance. 4 Answers. , is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current--one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead to smaller, faster. In 'high-level' writing on science (Nature), the use of data as a plural is dominant: in more popular writing on science (New Scientist) its use as a singular form is more frequent, though it is still outnumbered by its use as a plural: and in educated everyday usage as represented by the. ” A handful of nouns appear to be plural in form but take a singular verb. We hope these tips and examples help avoid the grammatical confusion that often surrounds data and research. When the word for the owner ends in s anyway, we would normally add only an apostrophe at the end of the word. Quantities, fractions, slippery words like total and majority, team and staff—it’s sometimes hard to tell whether a thing is singular or plural. Spend time practicing possessives that tend to be more confusing: Possessives of irregularly formed plural nouns (e. Bacteria Staphylococcus is a virulent form of bacteria. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. It is correct to write, "These data indicate…" as. With 184 mother tongues, 25 writing systems, and several traditions of oral and written literature, the diversity of India’s literary landscape can match only the complexity of its linguistic map. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied. So can we use ‘data’ as either singular or plural without having to worry about it? Not quite, since there are still formal conventions about how ‘data’ should be used in some settings. This is a decidedly practical post. the date of a letter, of a will, of a deed, of a coin, etc. Plural nouns that learners think are singular. What are singular and plural? A noun names an object, person or place. In modern non-scientific use, it is often not treated as a plural. So while crew refers invariably to a plurality (in the sense of being plural), its grammar is more ambiguous: We can say the crew is ready or the crew are ready. "But if you want to be safe, treat data as plural in scientific and academic contexts," the Grammarist says. If it is referring to a single thing, then a singular verb is used with percent, and if it is referring to multiple things, a plural verb is used. Because these names – Ted, John, I – are separated by the word and, the plural form of the verb is used. Correcting Faulty Subject-Verb Agreement. I’ll take this book; you can use those books over there. Plural means more than one. Knowing the rules of forming singular and plural. This kind of thing used. The singular form of 'data' is 'datum. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. Also the BNC has 491 entries for "data are" and 465 for "data is" (and in the vast majority of their examples "data" is the subject of the verb). Usually latin words should be used following the latin grammar, so datum for 1 point, data for more than one. We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage. To change a noun from singular to plural, we usually add either -s or -es. Concerning singular versus plural table names, the subject seems to be controversial, but it shouldn't be. Use both versions within the text of the page. Scientific results are built upon testing things multiple times across multiple people, and we draw conclusions from the aggregate, not the individual, data points. , is, was) and data is the plural form, which requires a plural verb (e. "two explanations of six factors"). Statistics (singular): the science of collecting, organizing and interpreting data. ) N ote: *The word "news" is a problem for most people learning English. incidence data synonyms, incidence data pronunciation, incidence data translation, English dictionary definition of incidence data. They are one of the more easy forms of grammatical devices to learn; however, plural noun worksheets will help to enhance the study. This reflects the original Latin usage. The singular form of data is datum, meaning one piece of information, but it's not used in conversational English. How could I say "an agenda"? Agenda is a Latin plural!. of good scientific writing. 12 Responses to "Latin Plural Endings" Nancy R. Help your student get to know plural nouns with our worksheets and more, all of which are reviewed by educators and education experts. Many academic and scientific fields, as well as many publishers and newspapers, still insist on the plural count noun use of data, as in The data are compelling, but it is more commonly used as a singular mass noun, as in The data is compelling. Write the plural form of each singular noun given below. 1 N HCl media was prepared", for example. Noun: Singular & Plural. , are, were). My data were corrupted. Therefore, data/datum and media/medium. - use plural if the table will be storing multiple rows. In that case, use the plural. Answer » A. Authors writing in the context of science definitely need to regard “data” as plural only, but when it comes to general vocabulary, I believe that insisting on the plural-only use for “data” is a lost cause. In plural sense it means quantitative facts or numerical data. In the second one, it is singular je n'ai mangé aucune pomme. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Plural And Singular Nouns. In that type of sentence, you could replace data with another count noun such as ‘facts’. Data may be used as a plural noun in this sense, with some writers -- usually scientific writers -- in the 20th century using datum in the singular and data for plural. Singular and Plural Nouns. 1 N HCl media was prepared", for example. “Datum” is unlikely to appear outside of specialist scientific or academic writing. Data is singular, data are plural, the usage varies. The Styrian government is the majority shareholder of FH JOANNEUM. He correctly pointed out that the plural pronoun they does not agree with its antecedent, the singular noun committee. Singular and plural nouns Singular and Plural Noun with Verbs grade-1. mass nouns. In Latin, data is the plural of datum and, historically and in specialized scientific fields , it is also treated as a plural in English, taking a plural verb, as in the data were collected and classified. The Styrian government is the majority shareholder of FH JOANNEUM. It is almost always treated as a plural in scientific and academic writing. Top 10 grammar myths: data is plural so must take a plural verb Data is a Latin plural with a singular datum though datum is seldom used on its own any more. Concerning singular versus plural table names, the subject seems to be controversial, but it shouldn't be. In its traditional sense, meaning a collection of facts and figures, the noun can still be plural: They tabulate the data, which arrive from bookstores nationwide. In a sentence like The faculty is organized into eight departments , the collective noun faculty is singular. Use of the term "data" as a singular noun is often seen as a marker of either scientific naïveté or poor writing. Writers of fiction, like poets, take artistic license in the writing, as you know, so perhaps it’s wise for us to also look at the writings of academics and other learned writers who so often observe the logical pairing of singular pronouns with singular antecedents, not plural. No exception. This free reading worksheet includes the words tree, chair and lemon and asks kids to write the singular and plural versions of each word on the printing lines provided. Singular means there is one, plural means there is more than one. For unit values more than 1 or less than -1 the plural of the unit is used and a singular unit is used for values between 1 and -1. Plural Nouns. Because your subject is third person plural , you need to use "sont". If it ends with y with a consonant just before it, change the y to ies. I need help deciding whether "public" is singular or plural here: Willingham brought to light an acceptance issue between the scientific and the non-scientific communities. If you balk at this Latinate usage you can refer to 'a data point' or 'data points. Personally I'd favour the singular version over the plural generally speaking. The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs. Collective nouns grade-2. He correctly pointed out that the plural pronoun they does not agree with its antecedent, the singular noun committee. The plural form of woman is women, not womans. (In this sense, the singular is datum, a word both stilted and deservedly obscure. 'Data' can be treated as a plural, or (particularly in computing) as a singular. Learn more. However, over the course of time this usage has vanished [ failed verification ] from the English language, and everyday writing, "data" is most commonly used in the singular, as. In scientific and academic writing, plural verbs and pronouns are preferred. Interesting question but the word can only be singular, as none (lack of) can by obvious definition never be plural. When the word for the owner ends in s anyway, we would normally add only an apostrophe at the end of the word. don't) and about some possessive apostrophes. You can check the verb by substituting the pronoun they for the compound subject. ) N ote: *The word "news" is a problem for most people learning English. The Macquarie Dictionary says: 'The connection between data the plural and datum the singular has been almost completely broken, so that while datum survives in such compounds as datum. The Latin word data is the plural of datum, "(thing) given," neuter past participle of dare "to give". Plural means more than one. "Your" used in a sentence can refer to a single person as in "this is your car" or when you are talking to a group of people and say "This is your country". In psychology and other scientific disciplines that use data on a daily basis, for example, data takes a plural verb: The data are inconclusive. According to Latin and traditional English, it may be seen as plural. Everyone Uses Singular 'They,' Whether They Realize It Or Not The singular, gender-neutral usage of "they" is now acceptable on college campuses, among the genderqueer and in the Washington Post. Countable noun: The noun has both a singular and plural form. In scientific research, the term "data" refers to a collection of many individual pieces of information, and so is plural. is direct and definite. I suspect that failure to use "data" as a plural noun has, on occasion, resulted in dismissal of an otherwise acceptable manuscript. However, in modern English usage, DATA is stated to be a mass noun or a noun that cannot be counted. I use the singular verb myself!" BizWritingTip response: "Data" is the plural of the Latin word "datum," meaning "given. Using a unit symbol which is never used in the plural form removes this ambiguity. Structure II: None + of the + plural countable noun + plural verb For example, None of the students have finished the exam yet. While the indefinite article a is the go-to marker for singular in English (a cat, a policy, a(n) eggplant), it just doesn’t play that role in a lot, which acts as a unit. EZSchool's Grade 1 - Learn 1st grade math, language arts, science and social studies with 619 free activities. Practice write singular and plural version of words. How could I say "an agenda"? Agenda is a Latin plural!. Facts that can be analyzed or used in an effort to gain knowledge or make decisions; information. It says: 'Database evidence shows that criteria is following the path of data and media and is often used as a singular as well as plural noun. Apple is a singular item, so you’d use the singular verb “was. Although most dictionaries and usage authorities still make this distinction, criterion is likely to go the way of datum and agendum (which are only used by small groups of English speakers). It is singular and the plural is data. The singular datum meaning "a piece of information" is now rare in all types of writing. In scientific research, the term “data” refers to a collection of many individual pieces of information, and so is plural. plural is used to indicate more than one species, strain, or variety. The noun data, for example, is plural; datum is the singular form. Keep in mind, though, that some people consider the singular data incorrect. However, nowadays, it is treated as a singular noun. I use the singular verb myself!" BizWritingTip response: "Data" is the plural of the Latin word "datum," meaning "given. Times and Storyboard editor Kari Howard at the helm. You will find data, singular, as an acceptable use in most dictionaries, however, this is a lay or colloquial usage and NOT appropriate for a scientific research paper. The singular form of 'data' is 'datum. It is almost always treated as a plural in scientific and academic writing. Data are multiple pieces of information. Some are plural in form but singular in sense (kinetics is). 4 Answers. In a map legend should the entries be singular or plural? What is correct? Road or Roads? A Google image search for "map legend" lead me to conclude there is no consistent way of having a legend entry be singular or plural. The plural form of woman is women, not womans. Formal and technical writing often still distinguishes between the singular ‘datum’ and the plural ‘data’. If it ends with f or fe, change it to ves. And we’re not talking about the “general lexicon”, we’re talking about science. Irregular plural nouns are nouns that do not become plural by adding -s or -es, as most nouns in the English language do. ' But usage has changed. In scientific writing, data is usually treated as a plural: The data were tested for reliability. Quite simply occurs site because the data-warehouse that shops the data you want people to have How Do You Get An Auto Loan access to without writing long, boring emails. These kinds of nouns are called irregular plural nouns. It is almost always treated as a plural in scientific and academic writing. Because your subject is third person plural , you need to use "sont". When you want to make a noun plural, you usually add s. Home » Analysis vs. In the past (and still in the occasional scientific institution), data was treated as plural. So, the Grammarist asks, “Should we use data as singular or plural?” It all comes down to preference and maybe using one that sounds best. Quantities. Use: three fishes of interest. ” For example: “These data were analyzed…” is correct. Or instead: “This data is …”? In theory, and consistent with the rules of Latin grammar and traditional English, data is a plural noun (e. My recommendation: As long as you are talking to Data Scientists and IT guys, ban datum from your vocabulary and use data with the singular. Most scholarly authors realise that each abbreviation must be carefully defined for readers when it is first introduced,. For unit values more than 1 or less than -1 the plural of the unit is used and a singular unit is used for values between 1 and -1. date (plural dates) The addition to a writing, inscription, coin, etc. Best Answer: garbage - data is the plural form of datum, yet it is used both as a plural noun and as a singular noun - meaning information. Salmonella enterica is… Salmonellae are ubiquitous… Do not use spaces for MRSA isolates. One of the most common number questions I get in my grammar workshops concerns whether collective nouns such as total, number and majority are singular or plural. Most Singular Nouns form their Plurals by adding –s. Common problems with singular and plural The content of these guidelines is taken from the Vives University Network’s Interuniversity Style Guide for Writing Institutional Texts, an interuniversity project in which the UPC participated with the support of the Secretariat for Universities and Research of the Government of. I know I can have a singular name when registering the taxonomy so I could just set the singular label to Type. How can I check if the word is plural or singular in python for app in Google App Engine. PLURAL SINGULAR Rule 9: Nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, sh, and ss are made plural by the addition of -es. In scientific research, the term “data” refers to a collection of many individual pieces of information, and so is plural. Alumni and alumnae remain problematic. ) Our course faculty (is/are) working on a textbook on Scientific Writing. The Macquarie Dictionary says: 'The connection between data the plural and datum the singular has been almost completely broken, so that while datum survives in such compounds as datum. If it is referring to a single thing, then a singular verb is used with percent, and if it is referring to multiple things, a plural verb is used. date (plural dates) The addition to a writing, inscription, coin, etc. If you want to count mass nouns,. : Je n'ai pris aucunes vacances. The articles a and an are indefinite articles. 'Data' can be treated as a plural, or (particularly in computing) as a singular. I suspect that failure to use “data” as a plural noun has, on occasion, resulted in dismissal of an otherwise acceptable manuscript. Plural Countable Noun. Description. Nouns that represent more than one of something are called plural nouns, and they have certain rules young writers need to know. data singular or plural? by tankobe Wed Jan 06, 2010 3:32 am 1# Now that so much data travels via light--i. They are used with a singular countable noun when the noun referred to is nonspecific or generic. Define incidence data. "Why write together?" the authors ask. Correcting Faulty Subject-Verb Agreement. Noun: Singular & Plural. This spelling tip examines the various endings of plural words derived from Latin and Greek. English term or phrase: Our data suggest OR our data suggests Should data be treated as a 3person singular noun or as a plural noun? e. Singular and plural. o People, places, and things can be described using one or more of the five senses. Data is often treated as a plural noun in writing related to science, mathematics, finance, and computing. Help your student get to know plural nouns with our worksheets and more, all of which are reviewed by educators and education experts. No exception. Unit symbols are unaltered in the plural. Ten kilometres is too far to walk. Remember: in the present tense in the third person (he, she, it and they) Singular Subject----> verb stem plus S, it fits, he sits, etc. Or and nor as joiners work somewhat differently from and. Ordinarily, it suggests you treat the name as singular unless you wish to emphasize the individuals who make up the organization. This is our possessive nouns worksheets section. This is because data also works as a mass or uncountable noun, like water, air, advice or furniture. When the word for the owner ends in s anyway, we would normally add only an apostrophe at the end of the word. Sometimes, however, it seems a bit more complicated than this. These learning games teach important skills for preschool and elementary school kids. 'Dog', 'balloon' and 'table' are singular nouns because there is only one of each of them. This might also be a good thing to factor out. They often made errors in this case. It helps to avoid the confusion of English pluralization which can be tricky sometimes for non-fluent writers. It may be used in scientific and academic writing. When a list of things is separated by the word nor, the singular form of the verb is used. Elsewhere, most English speakers treat it as a singular mass noun. The question seems easy enough: is data singular or plural? Unfortunately, the answer is that both usages are standard (1). This word play lesson teaches second graders about diphthongs (ow, ou, oi, oy and ew words) and tricky plural nouns (geese, feet, mice). ” This noun is from the second declension in Latin. In scientific and academic writing, plural verbs and pronouns are preferred. ' But usage has changed. 'Effect' is less common and refers specifically to producing an outcome. If it ends with s,x,z,ch or sh, end it with es. Unit symbols are unaltered in the plural. Tag: Data singular or plural “Data” Dilemma Since I joined the Master’s Programme in Health Informatics, many words and expressions have been added to my personal vocab. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: